After the Arab spring, what next? What are the possibilities for and obstacles to closer regional cooperation? This book focuses on relations between the four largest countries in the region ? Egypt, Turkey, Iran and Saudi-Arabia – with national contributions from all of them. European history has shown how revolutions can be followed by restoration of the old order before taking root. The Arab Spring may suffer severe backlash, too, but its impact can not be erased and may prove decisive in the long run.